# Test vectors¶

Testing the correctness of the primitives implemented in each `cryptography`

backend requires trusted test vectors. Where possible these vectors are
obtained from official sources such as NIST or IETF RFCs. When this is
not possible `cryptography`

has chosen to create a set of custom vectors
using an official vector file as input to verify consistency between
implemented backends.

Vectors are kept in the cryptography_vectors package rather than within our main test suite.

## Sources¶

### Asymmetric ciphers¶

- RSA PKCS #1 from the RSA FTP site (ftp://ftp.rsasecurity.com/pub/pkcs/pkcs-1/ and ftp://ftp.rsa.com/pub/rsalabs/tmp/).
- RSA FIPS 186-2 and PKCS1 v1.5 vulnerability test vectors from NIST CAVP.
- FIPS 186-2 and FIPS 186-3 DSA test vectors from NIST CAVP.
- FIPS 186-2 and FIPS 186-3 ECDSA test vectors from NIST CAVP.
- DH and ECDH and ECDH+KDF(17.4) test vectors from NIST CAVP.
- Ed25519 test vectors from the Ed25519 website_.
- OpenSSL PEM RSA serialization vectors from the OpenSSL example key and GnuTLS key parsing tests.
- OpenSSL PEM DSA serialization vectors from the GnuTLS example keys.
- PKCS #8 PEM serialization vectors from
- GnuTLS: enc-rsa-pkcs8.pem, enc2-rsa-pkcs8.pem, unenc-rsa-pkcs8.pem, pkcs12_s2k_pem.c. The contents of enc2-rsa-pkcs8.pem was re-encrypted using a stronger PKCS#8 cipher.
- Botan’s ECC private keys.

- asymmetric/public/PKCS1/dsa.pub.pem is a PKCS1 DSA public key from the Ruby test suite.
- X25519 test vectors from
**RFC 7748**. - RSA OAEP with custom label from the BoringSSL evp tests.

### Custom asymmetric vectors¶

`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/ec_private_key.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/ec_private_key.der`

- Contains an Elliptic Curve key generated by OpenSSL from the curve`secp256r1`

.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/ec_private_key_encrypted.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/ec_private_key_encrypted.der`

- Contains the same Elliptic Curve key as`ec_private_key.pem`

, except that it is encrypted with AES-128 with the password “123456”.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/ec_public_key.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/ec_public_key.der`

- Contains the public key corresponding to`ec_private_key.pem`

, generated using OpenSSL.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/rsa_private_key.pem`

- Contains an RSA 2048 bit key generated using OpenSSL, protected by the secret “123456” with DES3 encryption.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/rsa_public_key.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/rsa_public_key.der`

- Contains an RSA 2048 bit public generated using OpenSSL from`rsa_private_key.pem`

.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/dsaparam.pem`

- Contains 2048-bit DSA parameters generated using OpenSSL; contains no keys.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/dsa_private_key.pem`

- Contains a DSA 2048 bit key generated using OpenSSL from the parameters in`dsaparam.pem`

, protected by the secret “123456” with DES3 encryption.`asymmetric/PEM_Serialization/dsa_public_key.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/dsa_public_key.der`

- Contains a DSA 2048 bit key generated using OpenSSL from`dsa_private_key.pem`

.`asymmetric/PKCS8/unenc-dsa-pkcs8.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/unenc-dsa-pkcs8.der`

- Contains a DSA 1024 bit key generated using OpenSSL.`asymmetric/PKCS8/unenc-dsa-pkcs8.pub.pem`

and`asymmetric/DER_Serialization/unenc-dsa-pkcs8.pub.der`

- Contains a DSA 2048 bit public key generated using OpenSSL from`unenc-dsa-pkcs8.pem`

.- DER conversions of the GnuTLS example keys for DSA as well as the OpenSSL example key for RSA.
- DER conversions of enc-rsa-pkcs8.pem, enc2-rsa-pkcs8.pem, and unenc-rsa-pkcs8.pem.
`asymmetric/public/PKCS1/rsa.pub.pem`

and`asymmetric/public/PKCS1/rsa.pub.der`

are PKCS1 conversions of the public key from`asymmetric/PKCS8/unenc-rsa-pkcs8.pem`

using PEM and DER encoding.

### Key exchange¶

`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/rfc3526.txt`

contains several standardized Diffie-Hellman groups from**RFC 3526**.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/RFC5114.txt`

contains Diffie-Hellman examples from appendix A.1, A.2 and A.3 of**RFC 5114**.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/vec.txt`

contains Diffie-Hellman examples from botan.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/bad_exchange.txt`

contains Diffie-Hellman vector pairs that were generated using OpenSSL`DH_generate_parameters_ex`

and`DH_generate_key`

.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhp.pem`

,`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhkey.pem`

and`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhpub.pem`

contains Diffie-Hellman parameters and key respectively. The keys were generated using OpenSSL following DHKE guide.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhkey.txt`

contains all parameter in text.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhp.der`

,`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhkey.der`

and`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhpub.der`

contains are the above parameters and keys in DER format.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhp_rfc5114_2.pem`

,`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhkey_rfc5114_2.pem`

and`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhpub_rfc5114_2.pem`

contains Diffie-Hellman parameters and key respectively. The keys were generated using OpenSSL following DHKE guide. When creating the parameters we added the -pkeyopt dh_rfc5114:2 option to use RFC5114 2048 bit DH parameters with 224 bit subgroup.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhkey_rfc5114_2.txt`

contains all parameter in text.`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhp_rfc5114_2.der`

,`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhkey_rfc5114_2.der`

and`vectors/cryptography_vectors/asymmetric/DH/dhpub_rfc5114_2.der`

contains are the above parameters and keys in DER format.

### X.509¶

- PKITS test suite from NIST PKI Testing.
`v1_cert.pem`

from the OpenSSL source tree (testx509.pem).`ecdsa_root.pem`

- DigiCert Global Root G3, a`secp384r1`

ECDSA root certificate.`verisign-md2-root.pem`

- A legacy Verisign public root signed using the MD2 algorithm. This is a PEM conversion of the root data in the NSS source tree.`cryptography.io.pem`

- A leaf certificate issued by RapidSSL for the cryptography website.`rapidssl_sha256_ca_g3.pem`

- The intermediate CA that issued the`cryptography.io.pem`

certificate.`wildcard_san.pem`

- A leaf certificate issued by a public CA for`langui.sh`

that contains wildcard entries in the SAN extension.`san_edipartyname.der`

- A DSA certificate from a Mozilla bug containing a SAN extension with an`ediPartyName`

general name.`san_x400address.der`

- A DSA certificate from a Mozilla bug containing a SAN extension with an`x400Address`

general name.`department-of-state-root.pem`

- The intermediary CA for the Department of State, issued by the United States Federal Government’s Common Policy CA. Notably has a`critical`

policy constraints extensions.`e-trust.ru.der`

- A certificate from a Russian CA signed using the GOST cipher and containing numerous unusual encodings such as NUMERICSTRING in the subject DN.`alternate-rsa-sha1-oid.pem`

- A certificate from an unknown signature OID Mozilla bug that uses an alternate signature OID for RSA with SHA1.`badssl-sct.pem`

- A certificate with the certificate transparency signed certificate timestamp extension.`bigoid.pem`

- A certificate with a rather long OID in the Certificate Policies extension. We need to make sure we can parse long OIDs.`wosign-bc-invalid.pem`

- A certificate issued by WoSign that contains a basic constraints extension with CA set to false and a path length of zero in violation of**RFC 5280**.`tls-feature-ocsp-staple.pem`

- A certificate issued by Let’s Encrypt that contains a TLS Feature extension with the`status_request`

feature (commonly known as OCSP Must-Staple).`unique-identifier.pem`

- A certificate containing a distinguished name with an`x500UniqueIdentifier`

.`utf8-dnsname.pem`

- A certificate containing non-ASCII characters in the DNS name entries of the SAN extension.

### Custom X.509 Vectors¶

`invalid_version.pem`

- Contains an RSA 2048 bit certificate with the X.509 version field set to`0x7`

.`post2000utctime.pem`

- Contains an RSA 2048 bit certificate with the`notBefore`

and`notAfter`

fields encoded as post-2000`UTCTime`

.`dsa_selfsigned_ca.pem`

- Contains a DSA self-signed CA certificate generated using OpenSSL.`ec_no_named_curve.pem`

- Contains an ECDSA certificate that does not have an embedded OID defining the curve.`all_supported_names.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit certificate generated using OpenSSL that contains a subject and issuer that have two of each supported attribute type from**RFC 5280**.`unsupported_subject_name.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed CA certificate generated using OpenSSL that contains the unsupported “initials” name.`utf8_common_name.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed CA certificate generated using OpenSSL that contains a UTF8String common name with the value “We heart UTF8!™”.`two_basic_constraints.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing two basic constraints extensions.`basic_constraints_not_critical.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a basic constraints extension that is not marked as critical.`bc_path_length_zero.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a basic constraints extension with a path length of zero.`unsupported_extension.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an unsupported extension type. The OID was encoded as “1.2.3.4” with an`extnValue`

of “value”.`unsupported_extension_2.pem`

- A`secp256r1`

certificate containing two unsupported extensions. The OIDs are`1.3.6.1.4.1.41482.2`

with an`extnValue`

of`1.3.6.1.4.1.41482.1.2`

and`1.3.6.1.4.1.45724.2.1.1`

with an`extnValue`

of`\x03\x02\x040`

`unsupported_extension_critical.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an unsupported extension type marked critical. The OID was encoded as “1.2.3.4” with an`extnValue`

of “value”.`san_email_dns_ip_dirname_uri.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with the following general names:`rfc822Name`

,`dNSName`

,`iPAddress`

,`directoryName`

, and`uniformResourceIdentifier`

.`san_empty_hostname.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative extension with an empty`dNSName`

general name.`san_other_name.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with the`otherName`

general name.`san_registered_id.pem`

- An RSA 1024 bit certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with the`registeredID`

general name.`all_key_usages.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a key usage extension with all nine purposes set to true.`extended_key_usage.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an extended key usage extension with eight usages.`san_idna_names.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with`rfc822Name`

,`dNSName`

, and`uniformResourceIdentifier`

general names with IDNA (**RFC 5895**) encoding.`san_wildcard_idna.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with a`dNSName`

general name with a wildcard IDNA (**RFC 5895**) domain.`san_idna2003_dnsname.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with an IDNA 2003 (**RFC 3490**)`dNSName`

.`san_rfc822_names.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with various`rfc822Name`

values.`san_rfc822_idna.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with an IDNA`rfc822Name`

.`san_uri_with_port.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with various`uniformResourceIdentifier`

values.`san_ipaddr.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with an`iPAddress`

value.`san_dirname.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a subject alternative name extension with a`directoryName`

value.`inhibit_any_policy_5.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an inhibit any policy extension with the value 5.`inhibit_any_policy_negative.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an inhibit any policy extension with the value -1.`authority_key_identifier.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an authority key identifier extension with key identifier, authority certificate issuer, and authority certificate serial number fields.`authority_key_identifier_no_keyid.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an authority key identifier extension with authority certificate issuer and authority certificate serial number fields.`aia_ocsp_ca_issuers.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an authority information access extension with two OCSP and one CA issuers entry.`aia_ocsp.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an authority information access extension with an OCSP entry.`aia_ca_issuers.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an authority information access extension with a CA issuers entry.`cdp_empty_hostname.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a CRL distribution point extension with`fullName`

URI without a hostname.`cdp_fullname_reasons_crl_issuer.pem`

- An RSA 1024 bit certificate containing a CRL distribution points extension with`fullName`

,`cRLIssuer`

, and`reasons`

data.`cdp_crl_issuer.pem`

- An RSA 1024 bit certificate containing a CRL distribution points extension with`cRLIssuer`

data.`cdp_all_reasons.pem`

- An RSA 1024 bit certificate containing a CRL distribution points extension with all`reasons`

bits set.`cdp_reason_aa_compromise.pem`

- An RSA 1024 bit certificate containing a CRL distribution points extension with the`AACompromise`

`reasons`

bit set.`nc_permitted_excluded.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with both permitted and excluded elements. Contains`IPv4`

and`IPv6`

addresses with network mask as well as`dNSName`

with a leading period.`nc_permitted_excluded_2.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with both permitted and excluded elements. Unlike`nc_permitted_excluded.pem`

, the general names do not contain any name constraints specific values.`nc_permitted.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with permitted elements.`nc_permitted_2.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with permitted elements that do not contain any name constraints specific values.`nc_excluded.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with excluded elements.`nc_invalid_ip_netmask.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with a permitted element that has an`IPv6`

IP and an invalid network mask.`nc_single_ip_netmask.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a name constraints extension with a permitted element that has two IPs with`/32`

and`/128`

network masks.`cp_user_notice_with_notice_reference.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a certificate policies extension with a notice reference in the user notice.`cp_user_notice_with_explicit_text.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a certificate policies extension with explicit text and no notice reference.`cp_cps_uri.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a certificate policies extension with a CPS URI and no user notice.`cp_user_notice_no_explicit_text.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a certificate policies extension with a user notice with no explicit text.`cp_invalid.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a certificate policies extension with invalid data.`ian_uri.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit certificate containing an issuer alternative name extension with a`URI`

general name.`ocsp_nocheck.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing an`OCSPNoCheck`

extension.`pc_inhibit_require.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a policy constraints extension with both inhibit policy mapping and require explicit policy elements.`pc_inhibit.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a policy constraints extension with an inhibit policy mapping element.`pc_require.pem`

- An RSA 2048 bit self-signed certificate containing a policy constraints extension with a require explicit policy element.`unsupported_subject_public_key_info.pem`

- A certificate whose public key is an unknown OID (`1.3.6.1.4.1.8432.1.1.2`

).`policy_constraints_explicit.pem`

- A self-signed certificate containing a`policyConstraints`

extension with a`requireExplicitPolicy`

value.`freshestcrl.pem`

- A self-signed certificate containing a`freshestCRL`

extension.

### Custom X.509 Request Vectors¶

`dsa_sha1.pem`

and`dsa_sha1.der`

- Contain a certificate request using 1024-bit DSA parameters and SHA1 generated using OpenSSL.`rsa_md4.pem`

and`rsa_md4.der`

- Contain a certificate request using 2048 bit RSA and MD4 generated using OpenSSL.`rsa_sha1.pem`

and`rsa_sha1.der`

- Contain a certificate request using 2048 bit RSA and SHA1 generated using OpenSSL.`rsa_sha256.pem`

and`rsa_sha256.der`

- Contain a certificate request using 2048 bit RSA and SHA256 generated using OpenSSL.`ec_sha256.pem`

and`ec_sha256.der`

- Contain a certificate request using EC (`secp384r1`

) and SHA256 generated using OpenSSL.`san_rsa_sha1.pem`

and`san_rsa_sha1.der`

- Contain a certificate request using RSA and SHA1 with a subject alternative name extension generated using OpenSSL.`two_basic_constraints.pem`

- A certificate signing request for an RSA 2048 bit key containing two basic constraints extensions.`unsupported_extension.pem`

- A certificate signing request for an RSA 2048 bit key containing containing an unsupported extension type. The OID was encoded as “1.2.3.4” with an`extnValue`

of “value”.`unsupported_extension_critical.pem`

- A certificate signing request for an RSA 2048 bit key containing containing an unsupported extension type marked critical. The OID was encoded as “1.2.3.4” with an`extnValue`

of “value”.`basic_constraints.pem`

- A certificate signing request for an RSA 2048 bit key containing a basic constraints extension marked as critical.`invalid_signature.pem`

- A certificate signing request for an RSA 1024 bit key containing an invalid signature with correct padding.

### Custom X.509 Certificate Revocation List Vectors¶

`crl_all_reasons.pem`

- Contains a CRL with 12 revoked certificates, whose serials match their list position. It includes one revocation without any entry extensions, 10 revocations with every supported reason code and one revocation with an unsupported, non-critical entry extension with the OID value set to “1.2.3.4”.`crl_dup_entry_ext.pem`

- Contains a CRL with one revocation which has a duplicate entry extension.`crl_md2_unknown_crit_entry_ext.pem`

- Contains a CRL with one revocation which contains an unsupported critical entry extension with the OID value set to “1.2.3.4”. The CRL uses an unsupported MD2 signature algorithm.`crl_unsupported_reason.pem`

- Contains a CRL with one revocation which has an unsupported reason code.`crl_inval_cert_issuer_entry_ext.pem`

- Contains a CRL with one revocation which has one entry extension for certificate issuer with an empty value.`crl_empty.pem`

- Contains a CRL with no revoked certificates.`crl_ian_aia_aki.pem`

- Contains a CRL with`IssuerAlternativeName`

,`AuthorityInformationAccess`

,`AuthorityKeyIdentifier`

and`CRLNumber`

extensions.`valid_signature.pem`

- Contains a CRL with the public key which was used to generate it.`invalid_signature.pem`

- Contains a CRL with the last signature byte incremented by 1 to produce an invalid signature, and the public key which was used to generate it.`crl_delta_crl_indicator.pem`

- Contains a CRL with the`DeltaCRLIndicator`

extension.

### Custom X.509 OCSP Test Vectors¶

`x509/ocsp/req-sha1.der`

- An OCSP request containing a single request and using SHA1 as the hash algorithm.

### Hashes¶

- MD5 from
**RFC 1321**. - RIPEMD160 from the RIPEMD website.
- SHA1 from NIST CAVP.
- SHA2 (224, 256, 384, 512) from NIST CAVP.
- Blake2s and Blake2b from OpenSSL test/evptests.txt.

### HMAC¶

### Key derivation functions¶

### Recipes¶

- Fernet from its specification repository.

### Symmetric ciphers¶

- AES (CBC, CFB, ECB, GCM, OFB, CCM) from NIST CAVP.
- AES CTR from
**RFC 3686**. - 3DES (CBC, CFB, ECB, OFB) from NIST CAVP.
- ARC4 (KEY-LENGTH: 40, 56, 64, 80, 128, 192, 256) from
**RFC 6229**. - ARC4 (KEY-LENGTH: 160) generated by this project. See: ARC4 vector creation
- Blowfish (CBC, CFB, ECB, OFB) from Bruce Schneier’s vectors.
- Camellia (ECB) from NTT’s Camellia page as linked by CRYPTREC.
- Camellia (CBC, CFB, OFB) from OpenSSL’s test vectors.
- CAST5 (ECB) from
**RFC 2144**. - CAST5 (CBC, CFB, OFB) generated by this project. See: CAST5 vector creation
- ChaCha20 from
**RFC 7539**. - ChaCha20Poly1305 from
**RFC 7539**, OpenSSL’s evpciph.txt, and the BoringSSL ChaCha20Poly1305 tests. - IDEA (ECB) from the NESSIE IDEA vectors created by NESSIE.
- IDEA (CBC, CFB, OFB) generated by this project. See: IDEA vector creation
- SEED (ECB) from
**RFC 4269**. - SEED (CBC) from
**RFC 4196**. - SEED (CFB, OFB) generated by this project. See: SEED vector creation

### Two factor authentication¶

### CMAC¶

- AES-128, AES-192, AES-256, 3DES from NIST SP-800-38B

## Creating test vectors¶

When official vectors are unavailable `cryptography`

may choose to build
its own using existing vectors as source material.

### Custom Symmetric Vectors¶

If official test vectors appear in the future the custom generated vectors should be discarded.

Any vectors generated by this method must also be prefixed with the following header format (substituting the correct information):

```
# CAST5 CBC vectors built for https://github.com/pyca/cryptography
# Derived from the AESVS MMT test data for CBC
# Verified against the CommonCrypto and Go crypto packages
# Key Length : 128
```