Frequently asked questions¶
cryptography failed to install!¶
If you are having issues installing
cryptography the first troubleshooting
step is to upgrade
pip and then try to install again. For most users this will
take the form of
pip install -U pip, but on Windows you should do
python -m pip install -U pip. If you are still seeing errors after upgrading
pip install cryptography again, please see the Installation
cryptography compare to NaCl (Networking and Cryptography Library)?¶
cryptography and NaCl both share the goal of making cryptography
easier, and safer, to use for developers,
cryptography is designed to be a
general purpose library, interoperable with existing systems, while NaCl
features a collection of hand selected algorithms.
cryptography‘s recipes layer has similar goals
If you prefer NaCl’s design, we highly recommend PyNaCl.
If you’ve done cryptographic work in Python before you have likely encountered
other libraries in Python such as M2Crypto, PyCrypto, or PyOpenSSL. In
cryptography we wanted to address a few issues we observed in the
cryptography on macOS produces a
fatal error: 'openssl/aes.h' file not found error¶
This happens because macOS 10.11 no longer includes a copy of OpenSSL.
cryptography now provides wheels which include a statically linked copy of
OpenSSL. You’re seeing this error because your copy of pip is too old to find
our wheel files. Upgrade your copy of pip with
pip install -U pip and then
If you are using PyPy, we do not currently ship
cryptography wheels for
PyPy. You will need to install your own copy of OpenSSL – we recommend using
mod_wsgi produces an
InternalError during a call in
Upgrade to the latest
cryptography and this issue should be resolved.
cryptography raised an
InternalError and I’m not sure what to do?¶
InternalError is raised when there are errors on the OpenSSL
error stack that were placed there by other libraries that are also using
OpenSSL. Try removing the other libraries and see if the problem persists.
If you have no other libraries using OpenSSL in your process, or they do not
appear to be at fault, it’s possible that this is a bug in
Please file an issue with instructions on how to reproduce it.
cryptography fails with
ImportError: No module named setuptools_ext¶
cffi package is out of date.
pip install -U cffi to update it.
-Werror=sign-conversion: No option
-Wsign-conversion during installation¶
The compiler you are using is too old and not supported by
Please upgrade to a more recent version. If you are running OpenBSD 6.1 or
earlier the default compiler is extremely old. Use
pkg_add to install a
gcc and then install
CC=/path/to/newer/gcc pip install cryptography.
cryptography fails with
Invalid environment marker: python_version < '3'¶
setuptools are outdated. Please upgrade to the latest
pip install -U pip setuptools (or on Windows
python -m pip install -U pip setuptools).
Installing cryptography with OpenSSL 0.9.8 or 1.0.0 fails¶
The OpenSSL project has dropped support for the 0.9.8 and 1.0.0 release series.
Since they are no longer receiving security patches from upstream,
cryptography is also dropping support for them. To fix this issue you
should upgrade to a newer version of OpenSSL (1.0.1 or later). This may require
you to upgrade to a newer operating system.